A History Of Architecture On The Comparative Method Pdf

Ancient Architecture

The first use of architecture on a comparative method can be traced back to the ancient Classical period of Greece and Rome. Ancient architecture was largely informed by the culture and beliefs of the time, as well as by religious and political constraints. From the Parthenon to the Pantheon, Classical architecture was used to create spaces for both grand public spectacle and intimate private reflection. Monumental architectural designs were often used by the ancient Greeks and Romans to celebrate the power and grandeur of their civilizations.
Architectural emergence in the Mediterranean area greatly expanded during the Hellenistic period. Greek and Roman cities suddenly had to contend with a variety of new architectural styles and techniques, from Greek stoas and Roman forums to aqueducts, public baths, and theaters. Hellenistic architecture blended elements from across the Mediterranean, harnessing the power of engineering to create structures that provided both functional and aesthetic value.

Renaissance Architecture

Renaissance architecture marked a major turning point in the history of architecture on the comparative method. During the 15th and 16th centuries, a number of new architectural styles emerged, with a particular focus on geometrical precision, proportion, and harmony. Aesthetic criteria such as rhythm, balance, and harmony began to inform architectural design, leading to the creation of some of the most beautiful and iconic structures in European history.
Architects of the Renaissance also began to take a more global approach to architecture. They looked to ancient models, such as those from Rome, Greece, and Persia, for inspiration, but also began to draw on other styles from across Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. The incorporation of these various cultural influences led to a form of architectural cross-pollination, creating striking new styles and techniques of which the Renaissance is often seen as the progenitor.

Baroque Architecture

Baroque architecture was developed in the 17th century and became hugely popular across Europe. It developed out of the ornamentalism of the Renaissance and gained prominence at the same time as the political and religious structures of the time. Baroque architecture was characterised by its grandeur, exuberance, and, above all, its theatricality.
Baroque architecture sought to draw the eye to magnificent public spaces, such as cathedrals, palaces, and civic plazas. But it also sought to celebrate the power and might of an absolute monarchy through its form and function. As such, it was an important tool in the consolidation of power, as well as in the dissemination of religious, social, and political messages.

Neo-Classical Architecture

Neo-Classical architecture was developed towards the end of the 18th century as a reaction against the excessiveness of the Baroque. It drew on the symmetries, balance and proportions of Greek and Roman architecture, but also incorporated elements such as columns and pediments to create a more restrained and sober aesthetic.
Unlike its predecessors, which were used to demonstrate the grandeur and power of the monarchy, Neo-Classical architecture was considered an expression of civic values, particularly those associated with the Enlightenment, such as rationalism and democracy. As such, it was used to create public spaces that encouraged self-reflection and public debate.

Gothic Architecture

Gothic architecture was first developed in the 12th century in France and quickly spread across Europe. It is often associated with the Christian religion and used as a means of magnifying the glory of God and spiritual power. In stark contrast to the symmetries and proportions of Classical architecture, Gothic architecture was characterised by its idiosyncratic, whimsical, and often grandiose forms.
Gothic architects sought to make their mark on the world through innovation and experimentation. They genuinely believed that their creations could represent the divine, and so made every effort to craft unique, awe-inspiring immortal monuments. Gothic cathedrals were among the most innovative and daring works of architecture ever seen, and remain some of the most beautiful and complex structures of all time.

Modern Architecture

In the second half of the 20th century, something of a revolution took place in architectural design. In reaction against the rigid conventions of previous eras, modern architecture sought to break free from the past and explore more experimental forms. Architects such as Le Corbusier and Mies van der Rohe pioneered the modernist movement, introducing new materials such as glass, concrete, and steel into their work.
Modern architecture is characterised by its rationality, simplicity, and functionality. This new form of architecture sought to solve the problems of contemporary life through the application of rationalist principles, rather than to evoke past glories.

Postmodern Architecture

Postmodern architecture emerged in the late 20th century in reaction against the modernist movement. It sought to embrace the past, drawing on a variety of styles and motifs from previous eras. But rather than simply repeating what has gone before, it sought to bring a renewed sense of authenticity and vitality to traditional architectural forms.
Postmodern architects also sought to blur the lines between art and architecture, introducing more vivid and imaginative forms into their work. These unusual forms, such as deconstructivism, glass boxes, and blobitecture, are often seen as some of the most exciting and innovative works of architecture of all time.

Sustainable Architecture

In recent years, sustainable architecture has grown in importance as a response to the environmental crisis. Sustainable architecture seeks to reduce the environmental impact of buildings and is characterised by the use of renewable and low-impact materials, energy-efficient design, and zero-carbon strategies.
Sustainable architecture is also becoming one of the most important drivers of innovation in the housing and construction industry. Architects, builders, and developers are now looking for ways to combine innovative, energy-efficient design with traditional construction techniques, such as natural materials and local resources. The aim is to create buildings that are both aesthetically pleasing and have minimal environmental impact.


Architecture has evolved dramatically over the centuries, from the simplest shelter to complex and sophisticated structures. As a result, architecture has become an important tool in the expression of values and ideas, with each era leaving its own unique mark on the cultural landscape. The history of architecture on the comparative method embodies these changes, tracing the evolution of building design from ancient times to the present day.

Anita Johnson is an award-winning author and editor with over 15 years of experience in the fields of architecture, design, and urbanism. She has contributed articles and reviews to a variety of print and online publications on topics related to culture, art, architecture, and design from the late 19th century to the present day. Johnson's deep interest in these topics has informed both her writing and curatorial practice as she seeks to connect readers to the built environment around them.

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