Understanding Physics for Architecture
Architecture is a complex discipline, it involves numerous aspects such as aesthetics, material science, mechanics, mathematics, physics and engineering. To become a successful architect, it is essential to gain knowledge in different disciplines, such as physics. But is it possible to study architecture without having to gain knowledge in physics?
The simple answer is ‘Yes’. Although having a good understanding of physics is beneficial for aspiring architects, as it allows them to plan, design and construct efficient and safe buildings, one can learn and practice the craft of architecture without necessarily studying the subject of physics in depth. As an architect, it is possible to design with the guideline of established mathematical principles and the knowledge of how materials react.
A great number of architects are capable of developing projects without calculating the properties of elasticity, density and other related physic concepts. In no way does this mean that architects should overlook the significance of physics in architecture, far from it. Physics is one of the main fields of science related to architecture. It offers insight into how structures are held together and can help to handle some design issues such as energy consumption, ventilation and air resistance during the process of building.
Architects can use technology and computational methods to design structures with a basic understanding of physics. New technology and digital tools are widely available for use in the field of architecture, such as BIM and 3D printing, which reduces the need for manual calculations and makes it possible for architects to model and experiment with different solutions without having an understanding of physics. Design ‘formulae’ provided by software and applications can be used to simulate a building’s energy demands, air flow and much more.
In general, the utilization of physics in the field of architecture is mainly related to the structural system, or how to make a building solid and resistant to external and natural forces. It is important to determine the weights and forces each part of the structure carries over time. Architects must also think about ways to distribute the weight, taking into consideration the material they should use, in order to obtain an efficient construction. Some common principles of physics that are applied in architecture are Bernoulli’s equation, Stefan-Boltzmann Law, Hooke’s Law, Momentum and many more.
Structural systems ultimately comprise of a few key principles of physics, but in many cases architects have gone to lengths to challenge those principles through the use of innovative designs. As our understanding of physics grows, we can create innovative structures which bend the boundaries of what was previously thought possible.
Physics and Design
For architects, it is necessary to gain a high-level understanding of physics principles and also of mechanical engineering as this knowledge can be used to create delicate and innovative structural designs. Even though physics has practical applications, it can also be used to explore parameterised design systems, enabling architects to make informed design decisions. Additionally, the right utilisation of physics in an architectural setting can open up opportunities of creative interpretation, add complexity and offer designers with a set of innovative tools.
Having an understanding of physics enables architects to innovate with style and form. Architects can manipulate vectors, lines, grid systems and mathematical principals t o create stunning designs. Physics-inspired designs can appear complex, evoke feelings of dynamism, express motion and be used to construct ambitious building types. For instance, the innovative Dancing Towers in Munich, Germany, designed by a multi-disciplinary practice, ingenhoven architects, are example of an interesting building which forms a bridge between the natural world and science.
The world’s tallest building, the Burj Khalifa, is another example of a physics inspired design. In order to allow for the iconic tower to be so tall, even when buffeted by strong desert winds, the design engineers and architects had to develop solutions via the science of physics. In fact, understanding aerodynamics, and wind tunnel testing was required to test the building’s external glass and steel spire, enabling the structure to withstand extreme weather conditions.
Overall, the direct implementation of physics principles into design is beneficial and effective, however the degree to which it is applied is dependent on the architect’s style and preference. Physics-inspired designs are often focused on innovative solutions and technology, working with these principles often results in the creation of stunning designs.
Implications of Not Knowing Physics
Not having a complete understanding of physics and mechanical engineering principles can have consequences for an architect during the building’s construction and assembly process. Erroneously designed structures may lead to costly problems, such as wrong weight distribution resulting in collapsing supports or other structural defects. Additionally, failing to calculate forces and stresses can result in cracking upon completion of the building.
Moreover, if calculations are estimated roughly and not thoroughly discussed and tested, the entire project can be delayed and the builders, owners and architects can become responsible for any possible damaging situation such as accidents or safety hazards. This would ultimately put the architect’s reputation in jeopardy.
Despite not knowing physics, with correct calculations and evaluations by professionals, an individual can design and construct a safe building that adheres to the expected health and safety regulations, although that can be time-consuming and a more difficult task for the architect.
Resources for Architects
There are countless resources available for architects looking to gain a more in-depth understanding of physics principles. Many universities and schools provide courses which focus on the intersection between physics and architecture. It is also possible to access online resources, such as tutorials and online educational platforms, for those with a casual interest in the subject. Websites such as Coursera, Udemy, and architecture.com provide courses which give thorough knowledge of physics, specialised for the purpose of architecture.
Attending seminars, conferences and workshops related to development, physics and architecture is also extremely beneficial and allows architects to gain an in-depth understanding of the subject. Through organising events, architectural associations are also able to provide their members with the opportunity to learn from professional architects, engineers and civils.
In the modern era, many new technological advancements facilitate the architect to design with greater accuracy and knowledge. There are a number of digital tools available, such as structural engineering software, online libraries, data collection tools and Rhino modelling for exploring and designing complicated forms.
These tools help reduce the difficulty in learning a range of subjects as well as helping to increase productivity. Moreover, applications which allow architects to get a better understanding of physics and mechanical engineering principles offer designers a more efficient means of problem-solving.
Uses of Physics in Architecture
Architects use physics for the analysis of the structural system, the environmental resources of a building, materials selection and thermal control. Physics calculation is used to calculate and determine the forces, weights and moments carried by different elements of a building. Additionally, studies related to physics can come into effect when constructing a building which relies on ventilation, acoustics and form.
Architects will use physics when they explore the boundaries of their creative abilities and innovative designs. Physics are also used when creating technically complex features such as stacked or curved structures and when it’s necessary to consider the force of gravity or physical stability. Physics is also applied when dealing with matters of safety, such as the effects of seismic activities, the stress levels transmitted by a building and the sustainability of structures.
Without the basic understanding of physics, it is not possible for architects to use tools such as 3D modelling, rendering and animation. Physics-based processes enable more functional structures, structures which are ambitious, aesthetically pleasing and complex without compromising stability.
The Benefits of Physics for Architecture
By applying physics principles in the design process, architects can create innately strong structures, enabling them to explore more innovative designs. Physics can be used to aid in the design of energy efficient buildings, as well as helping to decide on how and what building materials are used.
Designers can think of innovative design principles to produce striking and eye-catching buildings, while making sure that the creation adheres to physics principles. Optimising and understanding the laws of physics can help to decrease the levels of energy consumption, making the building to become more sustainable. Buildings that utilise the principles of physics can be lighter, reduced in costs and it can allow for architects to become more creative.
Overall, the combination of physics and architecture can result in buildings that are extraordinary and breathtaking. When creators have a strong understanding of physics, they have the capacity to create structures which challenge the traditional design methods, granting wider options and inventive design solutions.