Investing in the latest art materials or the juiciest tools of the trade for the next painting you take on is one of the most passionate hobbies people can have. But when it comes to drawing accurate shadows, the challenge is to make them look as realistic as possible. It all depends on the proper application of shade and shadow principles, which can be tough.
In architecture, it can be particularly tricky. Drawing shade and shadow to obtain a sense of realism involves being familiar with specific concepts; and only then can an artist properly render an accurate and believable image. The old adage of ‘practice makes perfect’, is particularly apt here, however the main keys to unlocking this complexity are getting the right knowledge, plus finding the right techniques to practice.
Understanding the theory and fundamentals of shade and shadow in architecture is a good starting point. Light is a key player here, as it affects both shade and shadow. Look at any structure, from the symmetrical House of Parliament in London, to the whimsical Taj Mahal in Agra, and you’ll see that each one casts shadows telling a different story. The level of light, the direction and position of the object, its surroundings like trees, walls or a river nearby, the planar movement from the surface, and even topography and environmental nuances will all determine the variations of the light and the resulting shade or shadow
Familiarize yourself with the concept of light sources, so that you can anchor your drawings with believable lighting. There are three main types of shade and shadow in architecture. All need to be understood, especially the last one, which tends to be the most difficult to work with.
Ambient shadow is a type of lighting solution that produces softer, more uniform tones. This technique of recreating shade and shadow takes into account the surrounding environment, so the shadows aren’t sharp and pronounced. Rather, they are the product of various light sources canceling out each other, creating a more harmonious look. Think of the buildings lining the city streets, or an elegant garden or two. These might have soft lighting, and for this reason, ambient shadow is one of the easier shadowing techniques.
The second kind of shadow is the directed shadow, which is the opposite of the ambient type. It’s best suited to pieces featuring more sinister or drama-filled scenes. In this case, the artist is looking to create strong shadow-filled sections by consolidating the light source in one direction. A great example of this technique would be the horror genre, where dark spots tend to be used for grimacing purposes. Hotels and castles also fall into this category due to the eccentric vibes that are usually created.
The last type of shadowing is area shadow, usually reserved for the most skilled among artists. The challenge of this technique is to create shadows that look believable in any size and form. This requires both an understanding of light and how it affects the different planes of an object. If you want to capture the look of a medieval castle, you need to understand how light and shade will interact with the angles and its various angles. Even a slight distraction can ruin the entire look of the structure, so accuracy is essential.
When you understand the basic concepts behind shade and shadow in architecture, you can begin to practice and improve your skills. One of the most important aspects of this process is understanding perspective. Simply stated, perspective is the combination of all the viewpoints of any camera angle. It’s used to create the illusion of depth in a flat image, which can be tricky to do when using different elements from the same environment. Having a good relationship with perspective will help you create more realistic images. With this in mind, knowing how to draw a perspective is a must for any artist who wants to take on architecture drawings.
In both art and design, values refer to how light and dark an image can be. This can be manipulated by how much or how little light you use, and the balance needs to be just right to create the desired effect. Every object has a light source, and the amount of lighting on that object will determine the value. Once you have a firm grasp on adjusting values, you’ll be able to create much more accurate drawings.
Rendering an Accurate Shadow
All this knowledge is useless without the right techniques to put it into practice. The key here is to learn to identify and recreate them with precision. Artists can use a few tried and tested techniques such as line drawing, cross-hatching and general shading, as well as more advanced techniques like tonal gradation, intentional inconsistent lines and even freehand painting. Depending on the desired effect, the artist can choose a technique to fill in the shades and shadows to match the light and the other elements of the drawing.
Creating a Contrast
Finally, one must always remember that creating contrast is one of the most important aspects to giving the image an illusion of depth and reality. Without good contrast, the image will look flat and without texture. Leave some light areas untouched, some mid-tone areas shaded, and some dark areas to be black. This way, the artist can create a believable reality out of nothing.
The Use of Color in Shadow and Shade
Color can be used to further enhance a 2D drawing and bring it to life. Making use of a few complementary colors, or a body of wash of neutral color can add a lot to a shadow or shade based image. A cool or a warm color can help emphasize the feel of a particular shadow, add depth and mood, or help break up monotony. As in any art form, color is a major factor to consider when creating a believable image.
Introducing Shading Techniques
There are several distinct shading techniques used to add a touch of realism to the drawing. The most common technique is cross-hatching, which is the process of overlapping fine parallel lines to create the darkness. Hatching is a technique similar to cross-hatching, where a single row of thin straight lines with no gaps between them is used to fill areas. Meanwhile, tonal gradation involves using a range of light and dark tones of one particular color to create a range of highlights and shadows.
Playing with the Lighting
Not to be missed is manipulating the lighting to achieve the desired effect for the image. Placing lights in different positions or adding the traditional chiaroscuro effect can create interesting light and shadow effects that livens up an otherwise flat drawing. Care must be taken, however, to make sure that the lights used are properly placed.
Emphasizing Textures and Surfaces