How To Know Architecture Of Android

Understanding Basics Of Android Architecture

Android is a mobile operating system designed for a wide range of devices. It consists of four main components: Linux kernel, middleware, libraries, and application framework. When a user runs an application, Linux kernel enables the hardware and controller the core operations, while the middleware includes all the useful software that helps to communicate with other devices. The application framework enables the user to access and create apps that are embedded within the operating system.
In order to better understand Android architecture, one must first be familiar with Linux. Linux is an open-source operating system and is essentially made up of following major areas: the kernel, device drivers, system libraries and system software, and the user interface. Linux kernel is the core of the operating system and is responsible for managing resources and establishing communication with other programs. Device drivers are used to access hardware and peripherals, like Bluetooth, printer and so on. System libraries provide an interface between applications and core operating system functions, while system software serve as a bridge between applications written in a particular language and the operating system.

Android Software Stack

Android software stack consists of four basic and five specialized layers, where the basic layers are Linux kernel, native libraries, application framework, and applications. The four specialized layers include Root, Open Source Middleware, OEM, and Android OS.
Linux kernel is the basis of Android operating system which provides the low level functions to control the hardware and software. Native libraries are platform-independent C/C++ libraries that are used to access the hardware (camera, Bluetooth, etc), process media files (audio, video, image) and provide networking capabilities. Application framework layer is the most important part of Android and it consists of bundles of Java classes that provides basic functionalities for the applications. Finally, Applications layer consists of the apps that are written using the Android SDK.

Android Application Components

Android application components are the fundamental building blocks of an Android application. These components are arranged into a hierarchical structure and each component is designed to perform a specific task. The four basic components of an Android application are activities, services, content providers, and broadcast receivers.
Activity is the basic building block for user interface (UI) in an Android application. It is responsible for defining the interaction with user and can be implemented by subclassing the ‘Activity’ class. Service acts as the background task that can run independently from the users activity and can continue to run in the background even after the user has left the application. Content provider allows an external application to access data from other applications. Finally, Broadcast receivers are used to listen to system-wide broadcast events and are triggered when specific events occur.

Technical Side Of Android Architecture

Android architecture is comprised of several components that communicate with each other through multiple interfaces. At the core, Android contains the Linux kernel, which provides access to the hardware resources, such as memory, processing, and networking. Additionally, it contains a set of libraries that provide interfaces to different aspects of an application, such as Java classes, XML parsing, graphics, and multimedia. The application framework layer is responsible for managing the components of an application. It also provides a number of high-level services, such as an Activity manager which manages user activities, a Content provider which facilitates sharing files between different apps, and location services to track the user’s physical location.

Tools And Technologies Of Android Architecture

Android development consists of several tools, technologies, and platforms that are used to build and deploy Android applications. The Android SDK is the primary toolkit used by Android developers and it includes Android APIs, developer tools, sample code, and libraries that provide access to device services. The Android SDK also includes ADB (Android Debug Bridge), which is used to connect the device to an IDE and enable debugging. Android Studio is the official IDE (Integrated Development Environment) used for Android development. It uses the IntelliJ IDEA framework, and is used to create, edit and manage Android projects.
Along with the Android SDK, developers use Android NDK (Native Development Kit) to access the hardware and perform complex, low-level operations that are not possible with the API’s provided by the Android SDK. Third-party tools and libraries are also available for Android development, such as Unity3D for game development and Firebase for mobile development.

Deployment Of Android Architecture

The final step in the process of Android development is deployment of the application. Deployment of an Android application is a process of signing and packaging the application into an APK file and submitting it to the Android Market (now called Google Play). The APK is a package file format that is used to install an application on an Android device. The signing of an APK allows the system to identify the authorof the APK and verify that the application has not been tampered with. The signing process also provides a form of security for the application.

Benefits Of Android Architecture

The architecture of Android is designed to keep the user experience simple and intuitive. The four main components of the Android ecosystem, Linux kernel, application framework, application library, and applications, work together to make a cohesive and reliable system. The components also allow developers to create powerful, interactive apps that are tailored to the needs of their users. And with the open source nature of Android, developers can easily create and deploy apps that are updated regularly with new features.

Limitations Of Android Architecture

Although Android architecture provides many features and benefits, it also has some limitations. One limitation is that the fragmented nature of the operating system leads to different versions of Android being used on different devices. This can make developing applications more complicated, because each device may have slightly different versions of the Android OS. Additionally, development on Android may be slower, as some tasks may be more complicated than on other platforms. Additionally, some third-party libraries may be limited or unavailable in certain countries.

Optimization Of Android Architecture

Android architecture can be further optimized to provide better performance. Garbage Collection, an automated memory management system, can help to improve the performance of the system by optimizing the amount of memory used. Additionally, multi-threading can help to decrease the overhead associated with long running tasks in the operating system. Finally, hardware optimization can improve the performance of the hardware and help reduce the load on Android. Technologies such as ARM’s TrustZone can help to make the system more secure and efficient.

Anita Johnson is an award-winning author and editor with over 15 years of experience in the fields of architecture, design, and urbanism. She has contributed articles and reviews to a variety of print and online publications on topics related to culture, art, architecture, and design from the late 19th century to the present day. Johnson's deep interest in these topics has informed both her writing and curatorial practice as she seeks to connect readers to the built environment around them.

Leave a Comment