What Are The Key Components In Android Architecture


Android is an operating system for mobile phones and tablets developed by Google and released in 2008. It is the most popular mobile operating system in the world, surpassing Apple’s competing iOS operating system. An important aspect of any operating system is the architecture that underpins it, and Android is no exception. This article will discuss what key components of an Android architecture contribute to its success.

Android Core Components

Android is based on the Linux kernel, but extends it to make it suitable for mobile devices. This is one of the primary components of the Android architecture, upon which other components are added. These components include:

  • The Core Java Libraries – Contains useful Java classes and methods that are accessible by all developers.
  • The Application Framework – Gives developers the tools to build applications.
  • The Dalvik Virtual Machine – Runs apps and carries out the necessary performance optimisations on the device.
  • The Android Runtime – A layer of code, which mediates between applications and the Dalvik.
  • The Android Libraries – Contain code to interact with the hardware and provide various systems (like sensors and cameras) with the necessary communication interface.

By combining these components, developers can create powerful apps for Android devices.

Android Software Development Kit

In order to make the development process easier, Android also provides developers with the Android Software Development Kit (SDK). This contains tools, libraries, and other resources that can be used to create Android apps. The SDK includes a variety of tools, including an Android emulator, which allows developers to test their apps on multiple different Android versions and devices. The SDK also contains many helpful libraries and components, such as the libraries provided by the Android Core and the Application Frameworks mentioned earlier.

The Benefits Of Android App Development

The primary benefit of developing apps for Android is that it has a large user base, making it easier for developers to reach more users. Android is also open source, meaning developers have more freedom when it comes to developing their apps. This also enables developers to build more innovative and creative apps, as they are not restricted by the proprietary requirements of other platforms.
Android is also more secure than other operating systems, as it has various security features in place. These include: Device encryption, application sandboxing, application permissions, and secure updates. All of these features make it more difficult for malicious apps to gain access to the device and data stored on it.

Android Open Source Project

The Android Open Source Project (AOSP) is a key component of the Android architecture. This is an open source project that aims to provide an “open platform for everyone”. It is run by Google, but is open to contributions from developers, and is an important part of the Android ecosystem. The project provides developers with access to the source code, allowing them to modify and customise the software as needed.
The AOSP is constantly being improved and is the main driver of innovation in the Android platform. It contains numerous tools and components that make development easier, and has a thriving community of developers who are willing to help each other out.

Android Application Architecture

The Android application architecture is what makes it possible for developers to create powerful and efficient apps. Android utilizes an MVC (Model-View-Controller) architecture, which consists of three components: the Model, View, and Controller.
The Model is the data that is used by the application. This can take the form of a database, an XML document, or a web service. The View is responsible for displaying the data from the Model to the user. This can be in the form of a user interface element, such as a button or text field. The Controller is responsible for handling user interaction, such as when a button is clicked or a text field is entered.
By using this architecture, developers can create applications that are easy to use and efficient.

Android Design Principles

Google have outlined a set of design principles for developers to consider when creating an Android application. These design principles are based on research into how users interact with their Android device, and are designed to ensure that developing applications are as user-friendly as possible. These principles include:

  • Simplicity – Keep the design of the app simple and clear.
  • Responsiveness – Ensure that the app responds quickly and efficiently to user input.
  • Accessibility – Make sure that the app is accessible to all users.
  • Scalability – Make sure that the app is able to scale as needed.
  • Usability – The app should be easy to use and intuitive.

These design principles help ensure that developers are creating applications that will be enjoyable and easy to use.

Android Development Tools

Google provides a multitude of development tools that makes it easier for developers to create powerful Android applications. These include the Android Studio IDE, which is a powerful coding environment for developing Android applications, as well as a number of other tools such as debuggers and performance profilers.
Google also provides mobile device management (MDM) solutions, which enable developers to configure, deploy and manage applications across multiple devices remotely. This makes it easier for developers to manage applications in a large environment.


The key components of an Android architecture are an important part of its success. Android is based on the Linux kernel, with additional components such as the Core and Application Frameworks added on top. An important part of the Android architecture is the Android SDK and the AOSP, which enable developers to create powerful apps. Android also has a set of design principles that developers should consider when creating an application, and Google provides many useful development tools to aid developers in the process. All of these components come together to make Android the most popular mobile operating system in the world.

Anita Johnson is an award-winning author and editor with over 15 years of experience in the fields of architecture, design, and urbanism. She has contributed articles and reviews to a variety of print and online publications on topics related to culture, art, architecture, and design from the late 19th century to the present day. Johnson's deep interest in these topics has informed both her writing and curatorial practice as she seeks to connect readers to the built environment around them.

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