What Are The Major Components In Soc Architecture

As organizations try to keep up with increasingly digital customer demands and trends, the need to process large amounts of data quickly and securely grows more important. To achieve this goal, many have turned to deliberate, so-called “Enterprise Service Bus” architecture, better known as the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA).
SOA is a programming framework that enables businesses to build robust and interactive services that are accessible to external and internal users. This type of architecture typically consists of several components that communicate with each other to provide central IT services. A complete understanding of what these components are and how they interact is crucial for a successful development and functioning of the SOA architecture.

1. Protocols

SOA architectures must all rely on the same set of standard protocols, also known as communication layers, to ensure efficient exchanges of data between services, applications and systems. The two most commonly used protocols, according to IEEE, are HTTP, the HyperText Transfer Protocol, and XML, the Extensible Markup Language.
HTTP is used to create the communication channel over which data can be transmitted, while XML is a special text-based language designed to format and exchange data. Other protocols, such as SOAP and WSDL, are also often used in SOA projects.

2. Service Registries

The service registry is the database of all the services that are available within an SOA architecture. It is the gateway through which new services are added to existing architecture. This database must be properly maintained to allow services to be easily located and changed when necessary. Proper registry control and maintenance is essential for successful implementation of the SOA architecture.

3. Security

Security is a key factor to consider when designing and implementing an SOA architecture. Every component of the architecture must be properly secured, as any loophole may lead to serious security breaches. The introduction of secure authorization for service invocation is a necessary step to ensure that only authorized personnel can access the services. Furthermore, encryption of all data available in the system must be carried out to effectively safeguard sensitive data and guarantee data privacy.

4. Routing

The routing component of the SOA architecture enables the system to determine precisely where the data is received, processed and stored, thereby ensuring that vital information is managed properly. Without this component, data might be lost or corrupted, resulting in significant operational disruption. By routing data in an organized manner, SOA systems will support a more efficient service delivery and, as a result, higher quality of service.

5. Quality of Service (QoS)

The Quality of Service (QoS) parameter is essential in SOA systems. It determines how a service behaves when consuming resources. The QoS values can be set in a certain range to ensure an adequate level of data delivery performance. By monitoring and adjusting the QoS, service providers can ensure that the SOA architecture is running within its optimum performance limits.

6. Databases

Databases are integral to SOA architectures, as they provide the storage mechanism for all application data. The capabilities of traditional databases fall short for applications that need to store large amounts of highly interconnected data. To overcome this issue, some SOA architectures use a specific NoSQL database that offers improved flexibility in data handling. For example, the graph database offers new capabilities to simultaneously edit multiple pieces of data with relationships in parallel.

7. Web Services

Web services are an essential building block of SOA architectures. Web services are software resources that can be accessed over the web and used to expose business services in a secure manner. Web services must adhere to the standards set by the W3C, such as XML, SOAP and WSDL, to guarantee interoperability. Web services are also critical for connecting different services into a single system.

8. Messaging

Messaging protocols allow information to be exchanged in an asynchronous manner. By using messaging elements in SOA architectures, developers can make data exchanges faster and smarter. Messaging protocols, such as JMS, are essential for connecting multiple services, applications and databases.


Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a programming framework designed to facilitate robust and interactive services. The architecture typically has several components that communicate with each other to deliver efficient services. These components need to rely on the same set of standard protocols, such as HTTP and XML, and use service registries to guarantee data security and integrity. Moreover, routing, QoS and databases are also key elements. Finally, web services and messaging protocols are essential for connecting services and applications.

Anita Johnson is an award-winning author and editor with over 15 years of experience in the fields of architecture, design, and urbanism. She has contributed articles and reviews to a variety of print and online publications on topics related to culture, art, architecture, and design from the late 19th century to the present day. Johnson's deep interest in these topics has informed both her writing and curatorial practice as she seeks to connect readers to the built environment around them.

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