Who Developed The Basic Architecture Of Computer

Background Information

Computer architecture has been changing rapidly over the past few decades, and the basic architecture of computers has been built upon by generations of engineers and computer scientists. The origins of computer architecture can be traced back to the birth of the first mechanical computers in the late 1940s. These early computers relied solely on electromechanical components to perform its functions and process data. Although their operations were much slower than those of modern computers, these early machines laid the foundation for the development of subsequent more powerful hardware and software architectures.
Since the dawn of electronic computing, engineers and computer scientists have been striving to optimize the efficiency, speed and capacity of computers. From Moore’s Law and Von Neumann architecture, to pipelining and out of order execution, all of these technologies have originated from the early efforts of innovators and computer scientists who built the basic architecture of computers.

Relevant Data

The important role of early computer architects has shaped the development of the computing industry as we know it today. The pioneering works of Alan Turing, John von Neumann, and John Presper Eckert are among the remarkable achievements in computer history. Turing worked on cracking the Enigma Code, while von Neumann developed the architecture of modern stored-program computers. Together, their work provided the basis for many of the features of computers that are still in use today, such as the control unit and the architecture of the CPU.
Moreover, the development of transistor technology in the late 1950s made computers faster and more reliable. The invention of the integrated circuit (IC) in the early 1970s enabled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) and even more powerful computer architectures.
These advances in computing technology have enabled computers to perform more sophisticated tasks, allowing users to access information more quickly. In addition, the development of machine learning, artificial intelligence, and robotics in the past two decades have furthered computer performance even further.

Expert Perspectives

Experts credit the development of today’s technology to the rapid accumulation of knowledge over the decades, as well as to the creativity of engineering and computer scientists who have continually pushed the boundaries of computer power and capacity. In an interview with the BBC, renowned computer scientist and Turing Award winner David Patterson said, “There’s been an incredible impact of computer science in all aspects of society. We need to recognize the work and the people who invented the technology that we now take for granted.”
Similarly, Professor Stephen Smith from Carnegie Mellon University stated, “We can trace the roots of the modern computer back to von Neumann who is credited with the first schematic of a computer and the development of stored-program computers. If a single person has changed the way we view, use, and interact with computers today, it is von Neumann.”

Insights and Analysis

It is clear that the development of the basic architecture of computers has had a profound effect on the growth of the computing industry. Without the innovations in hardware and software architecture of early computer scientists like Turing and von Neumann, we would not have the range of powerful technologies that we have today.
Moreover, the continuing breakthroughs in computing technology are a testament to the creativity and ingenuity of the engineers and computer scientists who have dedicated themselves to the research and development of computers. Furthermore, their work has enabled countless advances in other fields such as medicine, finance, and transportation.

Stored-Program Computers

Stored-program computers are electronic computers that can store instructions and data in memory. They are based on von Neumann’s architecture which is also referred to as the “von Neumann bottleneck” because of the single memory channel that is used to store and retrieve data. This type of architecture was the first to be able to run multiple programs in the same computer, making it the dominant architecture for early computers.
However, the drawback of this architecture is that the data and the program are stored in the same memory space. This means that data needs to be constantly moved between the processor and the main memory to execute programs, leading to slower performance and lower efficiency.

Pipelining and Out-of-Order Execution

To reduce the time it takes to execute a program on a central processing unit (CPU), engineers have developed the concept of pipelinning. In essence, this involves breaking down the instructions of a program into simpler steps and then executing these steps one after another in a pipeline.
Additionally, out-of-order execution technology was developed to further reduce the execution time of programs by allowing the CPU to execute instructions in any order, rather than the order in which they were written. This means that instead of waiting for instructions to execute in a specific sequence, the processor is able to prioritize instructions on its own to improve performance.

Moore’s Law

Moore’s law is the observation that the number of transistors on a transistor chip doubles about every two years. This means that CPUs have rapidly become more powerful and more efficient over time. Furthermore, this increase in transistor density has enabled greater storage capacity and higher processing speeds.
This has resulted in a multitude of advancements in the computing industry. With the aid of transistors, engineers have been able to design more compact and powerful computer chips and develop powerful CPU architectures such as RISC and CISC.

Integrated Circuits

Integrated circuits are a type of circuit technology in which a large number of transistors are interconnected on the same substrate. This technology is advantageous because it reduces the size and cost of computers, while improving performance and reliability.
The development of integrated circuit and CMOS technology in the early 1970s was responsible for the miniaturization of computers and allowed for the development of more powerful and efficient computers. This was a crucial milestone in the history of computer architecture as it paved the way for the invention of personal computers, mobile phones, and other computing devices.

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning

The rise of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning in the past two decades has greatly increased the power and capacity of computers. By leveraging the power of AI and machine learning algorithms, computers are now able to process large amounts of data and recognize complex patterns.
Using these algorithms, computers can now perform tasks that were once thought impossible such as image recognition, natural language processing, and autonomous decision-making. In addition, AI and machine learning algorithms have also been used to develop advanced robotics and automated systems.


The development of the basic architecture of computers is one of the most significant milestones in the history of computing. Early engineers and computer scientists, backed by decades of research and development, have enabled the massive expansion of the computing industry.
From the invention of transistors, integrated circuits, and CMOS technology, to the development of AI and machine learning algorithms, each of these advances has helped to propel computer architecture further. Ultimately, it is the creativity of engineers and computer scientists that have enabled modern computers to reach the level of sophistication they are at today.

Anita Johnson is an award-winning author and editor with over 15 years of experience in the fields of architecture, design, and urbanism. She has contributed articles and reviews to a variety of print and online publications on topics related to culture, art, architecture, and design from the late 19th century to the present day. Johnson's deep interest in these topics has informed both her writing and curatorial practice as she seeks to connect readers to the built environment around them.

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